Volume II, no. 1

October 31, 1972

THE SOCIETY FOR SPANISH AND PORTUGUESE HISTORICAL STUDIES was founded in April 1969, to promote research in the fields of Spanish and Portuguese History. Members of the Executive Committee are Professors Morgan R. Broadhead (University of Texas at Austin), Clara E, Lida (Wesleyan University), Stanley Payne (University of Wisconsin), David Ringrose (Rutgers University), Nicolás Sánchez-Albornoz (New York University), Susan Schneider (University of Massachusetts at Boston), and Iris M, Zavala (State University of New York at Stony Brook).


The Fourth Annual Conference of the Society will be sponsored by the Latin American, Portuguese, and Spanish Division of the Library of Congress, and will be held in the Whittall Pavilion of the Library on Saturday and Sunday, April 7 and 8, 1973. Hotel and banquet reservation forms and further details will appear in the December issue of the NEWSLETTER. Mr. Earl J. Pariseau, Acting Chief, Latin American, Portuguese, and Spanish Division, Library of Congress, Washington, D. C. Z0540, is in charge of local arrangements. Professor Nicolás Sánchez-Albornoz is in charge of the committee on the program. Suggestions regarding panels and papers should be directed to him at the History Department, New York University, New York, New York 10003.


The Annual Business Meeting of the Society for Spanish and Portuguese Historical Studies was called to order on Saturday, April 22, 1972, at 10:00 a.m. by the outgoing General Secretary of the Society, Clara E. Lida. It was agreed that David Ringrose, the newly elected General Secretary, should preside over the session. Susan Schneider was selected as recording secretary.


Professor Domínguez Ortiz was the Society's guest speaker at its Third Annual Conference. We take pleasure in reprinting a Synopsis of his address, "Señores y vasallos: el régimen señorial español en el siglo XVII."



In reality, a seignorial regime with unitary characteristics never existed in Spain. There were considerable differences between the situation in the Kingdom of Aragon, which resembled the "feudalism" of the rest of Europe and that which predominated in Castile. In the latter case, domains were held by individual lords, Military Orders, important municipalities and the Church, under a multiplicity of jurisdictions and privileges. Perhaps 40% of the population was dominated by some sort of seignorial bond.

The prejudice of historians which relegates the seignorial regime to a mere relic of the Middle Ages has resulted in little research into the social aspects of this problem during the modern period. This paper will examine, in general terms, how the social, economic and mental revolutions of the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries affected the traditions of the seignorial regime.

The creation of new seignorial domains was due to the convergence of two factors: the pressing need for money on the part of the Royal Hacienda, and the appearance of a new class anxious to convert their funds into the ownership of landed estates. The finances of the Hapsburgs have been discussed by Carande, Ulloa and myself. As to the latter issue, this period marks the emergence of a nouveau-riche class; an urban bourgeoisie composed of office holders, merchants and bankers, anxious to acquire status and power. Thus, among the purchasers of new estates we find the Genoese banking family of Centurion, the famous merchant family of Bernoy and important bureaucrats like Francisco de los Cobos, and later, the royal secretaries Luis Gudiel, José Gonzalez and others.

The economic decline of the seventeenth century did not result in an abatement of seignorial purchases, but rather, its increase. In general terms, one can summarize the situation as follows: perhaps 300 new domains were created by the Hapsburgs, although many were the result of a transfer of lands from ecclesiastical to secular control. Although this was a rural phenomenon, the greatest activity occurred in land directly adjacent to the large cities. In Murcia and Extremadura, for example, only isolated cases have been found, and the same is true for northern Spain.

Regarding the social relationships between vassals and lords on these domains, little concrete evidence is available, but it can be stated that they ran the gamut from paternal benevolence to abusive cruelty. Examples can be furnished on both sides, but it is an undeniable fact that the confrontation between lord and vassal was rarely a dramatic event in the history of Castile. Nonetheless, there was a continuous friction, and it is reflected by the numerous suits end litigations fomented by both sides. This was particularly the case in wealthier villages which often contained a few local hidalgos, while, on the other hand, the power of the lord in smaller


settlements was usually insurmountable.

But it should be noted that the power of the lord was limited by the extent of his traditional or legal privilege. Personal contributions often consisted of only a small, lump-sum payment on the part of each vassal. In newly-created estates, the lord might only buy the rights to collect alcabala, for example, and could not name local officials or otherwise interfere in the lives of the villagers. The price-rise of the sixteenth century and the custom of fixed payments or, long-term leases forced the seignorial class to rectify their worsening situation by either shortening the length of peasant leases or buying up land. The end result was the depopulation of rural settlements and the reversion of land to the private ownership of the lord. This situation was intensified by the loss of rural population in the seventeenth century resulting from wars, plagues and onerous fiscal oppression. However, while the decline of population might result in a loss of personal prestige for the lord, it often advanced his economic position as a landed proprietor. Here one finds the coexistence of feudalism and capitalism being decided in favor of the latter with material considerations becoming more important than questions of social or political power.

* * * * * *
Compiled by David S. Zubatsky



The quadricentennial of Camões' "Os Lusíadas" was celebrated at a Symposium sponsored by the Department of Spanish and Portuguese at The University of Texas at Austin, April 24-26, 1972. Among the papers scheduled were: Alexander A. Parker, "The Age of Camões"; Jorge de Sena, "Camões: Some New Aspects of his Epic and his Thought"; Ronald W. Sousa: "A Poet and his Nation: the Foreground Myth of 'Os Lusíadas"; and Fabio Lucas Gomes: "Noticia sobre Camões e 'Os Lusíadas."


ISSA's Fifth Annual Conference was held at the University of Nottingham, April 13 16, 1972. The following papers were among those scheduled: Michael Alpert (The Polytechnic of Central London), "The Republican Army in the Spanish Civil War"; R. Robinson (University of Birmingham), "Aspects of the Background to the Probable Re-Instillation of the Monarchy in Spain"; Américo da Costa Ramalho (Faculdade


de Letras de Coimbra, Portugal), "Camões and 'Os Lusíadas"'; D. Avery (History Section of the R.T.Z. Corporation), "The Rio Tinto Company and its Relations with the Spanish Government and Trade Unions 1873-1930"; and Stanley G. Payne (University of Wisconsin), "Spanish Fascism and Comparative Perspective."

Members may be interested to learn that ISSA has begun publication of IBERIAN STUDIES: THE JOURNAL OF THE IBERIAN SOCIAL STUDIES ASSOCIATION. Volume I, number 1 appeared in the Spring of this year; successive issues are scheduled to appear semiannually. From the flyer announcing its publication we note: "Iberian Studies is an independent journal published by the University of Keele. It will contain articles, bibliographies, reviews, research directories, notes, queries and correspondence. Some of the articles will be papers read at ISSA conferences but the editors invite the submission of authoritative studies of Spain and Portugal and their overseas territories. Latin America is not included in the journal's sphere, except when there is an obvious connection e.g., Spanish-Cuban trade or Portuguese migration to Brazil. Articles will be published in English, Spanish and Portuguese." Subscription price is $5.50 U.S. annually, and subscriptions may be ordered from R. P. Bradshaw, Department of Geography, The University, Nottingham, NG7 2RD, England.


The First Colloquium on Spanish Economic History took place in Barcelona on May 12 and 13, 1972, under the honorary joint chairmanship of Professors Ramón Carande, of the University of Seville, and Pierre Vilar, of the Sorbonne. Its sponsors were the Bank of Spain and the Universidad Autónoma de Barcelona; the meetings were held at the Institute for Commerce Studies of the Cotton Textile Industry (SECEA), a private organization.

The meetings were divided into four sessions under the following broad headings: Agriculture, Trade, Industry, and Finance. The papers concentrated on late eighteenth, nineteenth, and twentieth centuries. A total of 25 papers were summarized at the sessions, most having been distributed in advance among the participants.

It was decided at the cloture that a second Colloquium would be held within the next three years, that the Spanish economic history association would be strengthened, and that the papers and proceedings of the First Colloquium would be published. A secretariat was appointed for these purposes, and may be reached at the following address: Gabriel Tortella; Coloquios de Historia Económica de España; Servicio de Estudios; Banco de España; Madrid, Spain.




A Conference Group on Modern Portugal was formed at a three-day meeting held at the University of Wisconsin, June 9-11, 1972, under the sponsorship of the University's Western European and Ibero American Studies Programs. Initial members of the group in attendance were Thomas Bruneau (Political Science, McGill); Juan Linz (Sociology-Political Science, Yale); Harry Makler (Sociology, Toronto); Stanley Payne (History, Wisconsin); Joyce Riegelhaupt (Anthropology, Sarah Lawrence); Philippe Schmitter (Political Science, Chicago); Stuart Schwartz (History, Minnesota); and Douglas Wheeler (History, New Hampshire). The principal topics discussed at the Conference were the history of the First Republic, the structure and development of the Portuguese corporative system and problems of change in Portuguese society.

The Conference Group has formulated plans to hold a more extensive Workshop on Modern Portugal for both faculty and graduate students in 1973 and to produce a volume of seminal essays on stability and change in twentieth-century Portugal under the co-editorship of Joyce Riegelhaupt and Douglas Wheeler. It also plans to develop an extensive interdisciplinary research proposal for the investigation of social change and the Portuguese system as a variant of the modern authoritarian regime, as well as for the development of a data bank on modern Portuguese society which, in conjunction with similar data on Spain and Italy, can provide comparative indicators of social and institutional change since the mid-nineteenth century.


Inquiries may be addressed to the acting secretary of the Conference Group, Professor Stanley Payne, History Department, 5217 Humanities, University of Wisconsin, Madison, Wisconsin 53706.


Preliminary announcement is made of the intent of the Society to award its first annual prizes this year for work in the fields of Spanish or Portuguese history. As determined at the Third Annual Conference of the Society, awards will be made in two categories: 1) a prize of $200.00 will be awarded the best finished article length manuscript submitted to the Awards Committee by a graduate student; and 2) an award without stipend will be accorded the best article accepted for publication and submitted to the Awards Committee (an Executive subcommittee) by a young scholar within five years of completion of the Ph.D. For purposes of clarification, "graduate student" under category #1 is taken to mean someone who has yet to complete a Ph.D. Until further notice, entries may be submitted to Professor Nicolás Sánchez-Albornoz, History Department, New York University, New York, New York 10003. Articles will be accepted in English, Spanish, or Portuguese. Further details will be announced in the December issue of the NEWSLETTER.


Ediciones Ruedo Ibérico is offering a prize of one million pesetas for a work on Spanish political history falling within the period 1936-1971. Entries may deal with the entire period, or with any essential aspect of it. Entries must be unpublished and may not be shorter than 600 double-spaced folio pages. The deadline for submission is 30 November 1972. Complete rules may be obtained by writing: Editions Ruedo Ibérico, 6, rue de Latran, Paris 5, France.


The Ayuntamiento de la Ciudad de Orihuela (Alicante) is offering a prize of 100,000 pesetas for a work pursuing the theme of "Geografía e Historia del Principado Godo Teodomiro." Entries should be at least 100 double-spaced folio pages in length, and must be submitted in Spanish, The deadline for submission is 30 November 1972. Further details may be obtained by writing the Secretaría del Excmo. Ayuntamiento de la Ciudad de Orihuela.


Brandeis University Library has recently acquired an archival collec-


tion of reports, documents and communications relating to POUM activities during the Spanish Civil War. These reports and documents were drawn up between the years 1936 to 1938 and transmitted by Hugo Oehler and Russell Slackwell (known in Spain as Rosalío Negrete). Both men represented the Revolutionary Workers League and maintained a close contact with the POUM. According to the donor, 160 reports were sent to their various comrades throughout the United States. Unfortunately, over the period of years, some of these reports were lost However, the donor has managed to recover about 100 of these reports and states that there is enough material included to present a sequence of events in Spain as reported by Oehler and Blackwell.

For information concerning the use of this archive, please write Victor A. Berch, Special Collections Librarian, Brandeis University Library, Waltham, Massachusetts 02154.


Several notices have arrived of continuing acquisitions of Spanish newspapers by the Library of Congress. (For earlier reports see SSPHS NEWSLETTER, #1, pp. 4-6, and #3, pp. 6- 9.) Among the recent additions are positive microfilms (219 reels) of El Imparcial for the periods January 1870 - 22 May 1874, January 1875 - June 1932, and 25 October 1932 - 30 May 1933; and positive films (76 reels) of El Debate for the periods 1 January - 31 January 1915, and 1 January 1917 - 19 July 1936, this latter with lacunae for periods of suspended publication between 20 January and 25 March 1932, and between 11 August and 7 October 1932. Positive films of both of these papers are obtainable from the Photographic Service of the British Museum, London, W.C. 1, at L3.50 per roll,

The Library also announces that its own Photoduplication Service now has available positive copies of El Sol (74 reels) for the period 1 December 1917 - 2 November 1936. Orders or inquiries should be addressed to: Library of Congress, Photoduplication Service, Dept. C 157, Washington, D. C. 20540. The cost of the complete file, including mailing, is $865.00.

Mr. Donald Wisdom announces that the Newspaper Project is now about 60% complete. He would like to know if anyone has information concerning holdings of El Socialistaoutside of Spain which the Library of Congress might be able to copy.


The SSPHS has been invited to suggest papers with comparative possibilities for one or possibly two panels in cooperation with the Conference on Latin American History. In addition, the SSPHS will forward to the AHA Program Committee panel proposals if there are mem-


bers with topics which can be coordinated easily. At the moment the topics under consideration are fairly loosely framed and include: Continuity and Change in Spanish History; Spain and Portugal in the 20th Century; City and Country in Medieval and Early Modern Iberia. These topics are open to modification depending on the suggestions put forward. Suggestions and volunteers for papers, comments, or chairmen should be sent immediately to David Ringrose, Department of History, Rutgers University, New Brunswick, New Jersey 08903.


Dr. Enoch Resnick, of the History Faculty at Bar-Ilan University, Israel, is inaugurating a program in Iberian Studies. To facilitate his project he writes asking if those interested would contribute relevant books and journals to the Bar-Ilan University library. Any such material should be sent to: Mr. Rubin Dobin, Bar-Ilan University, 641 Lexington Avenue, New York, New York 10022, or to: Enoch Resnick, History Department, Bar-Ilan University, Ramat-Gan, Israel.


Attention of the membership is called to the European Studies Review edited by J. H. Shennan of the Department of History, University of Lancaster, Bailrigg, Lancaster, England. Professor Shennan writes to say that he would be pleased to receive articles from our members to be considered for publication.


G. K. Hall & Co. has recently published a new Catalogue of the Greenlee Collection of the Newberry Library, Chicago, Illinois. Of interest especially to those in the fields of Portuguese literature and history, the new Catalogue takes into account the near doubling in size of the Greenlee Collection since the 1953 Catalog compiled by Doris Varner Welsh. The new Catalogue does not include Luso-Brazilian material in the General Collection or in the Edward E. Ayer Collection of the Newberry Library. Further information may be obtained from G. K. Hall & Co., 70 Lincoln Street, Boston, Massachusetts 02111.

Attention is called to an article by Josef Polisensky entitled, "Fuentes para la historia de España y Portugal en los archivos Checoslovacos," in Ibero-Americana Pragensia: Anuario del Centro de Estudios Ibero Americanos de la Universidad Carolina de Prana, año IV (1970), 262-67.

Other recently published books of interest: Miriam Halpern Pereira, Livre Câmbio e Desenvolvimento Económico. Portugal na segunda metade do século XIX (Lisbon: Edições Cosmos, 1971) . . . .


Joaquín Nadal Farreras, La Introducción del Catastro en Gerona (Barcelona: Publicaciones de la Catedra de Historia General de España, Universidad de Barcelona, 1971). . . . Josep Fontana Lázaro, La quiebra de la monarquía absoluta, 1814-1820 (Barcelona: Ediciones Ariel, 1971). . . . Iris M. Zavala, Románticos y socialistas. Prensa española del XIX (Madrid: Ed. Siglo XXI, 1972). . . . Clara E. Lida, La Mano Negra (Madrid: Ed. Siglo XXI, 1972). . . . Pierre Vilar, Christopher Hill, et al., Estudios sobre el nacimiento v desarrollo del capitalismo (Madrid: Ed. Ayuso, 1972). . . . F. Tomás y Valiente, El marco político de la desamortización en España (Barcelona: Ed. Ariel, 1971). . . . Guy Hermet, Les communistes en Espagne. Etude d'un mouvement politique clandestin (Paris: 1971). [List compiled by Clara E. Lida, Iris M. Zavala, and Morgan R. Broadhead.]


DOUGLAS L. WHEELER (History, University of New Hampshire, Durham) has been awarded a research grant by the Gulbenkian Foundation, Lisbon, to support his writing a book on the first Portuguese Republic, 1910-1926. Professor Wheeler will be in Lisbon during the academic year 1972-73.

Guggenheim Fellowships for 1972-73 were awarded to Professors JUAN MARICHAL (Harvard University), JOAN CONNELLY ULLMAN (University of Washington), and STANLEY J. STEIN (Princeton University). Professor Marichal will employ his award toward work on a biography of Juan Negrín; Professor Ullman is undertaking a study of Pablo Iglesias; and Professor Stein, a monograph on Merchants and Monarchs in Spain and New Spain, 1759- 1829.

URSULA LAMB (Yale University) has been awarded a Senior Research Fellowship from the National Endowment for the Humanities for 1972-73. Professor Lamb plans at least six months work in Seville and Simancas along with study in other major European archives leading to a work on "Problems of Description and Representation of the New World -- The Cosmographers of the Age of Discovery."

Among those honored with awards for 1972-73 from the Joint Committee, Foreign Fellowship Program,,sponsored by the Social Science Research Council and the American Council of Learned Societies were CLARA E. LIDA (Wesleyan University) and IRIS M, ZAVALA (State University of New York at Stony Brook). Professor Lida will study the impact of 19th century Spanish immigration on the labor movement in Argentina. Professor Zavala will investigate "Literature and Society in the 19th century. Studies in Realism."

ROBERT I. BURNS (University of San Francisco) will return to Spain on an American Council of Learned Societies fellowship to continue researching his work on the colonial Christian society in Valencia. He recently completed a term at the Institute for Advanced Study, Princeton, New Jersey.



William D. PHILLIPS (History, San Diego State College)

Helen NADER (History, University of Hawaii) Willard C. FRANK (History, Old Dominion University) J. N. HILLGARTH (History, Boston College) [15]

Geri BLEDSOE (History, Randolph-Macon College)

Shirley F. FREDERICKS (History, Adams State College) Robert I. BURNS (History, University of San Francisco) [16]


The following doctoral dissertations are currently in progress under the direction of the professor whose name is indicated after that of the institution. The estimated date of completion is indicated in parentheses.


UNIVERSITY OF CALIFORNIA, SANTA BARBARA (Philip U. Powell) PRINCETON UNIVERSITY (J. R. Strayer) UNIVERSITY OF WASHINGTON (Joan Connelly Ullman) --------------------------------------------------------


The NEWSLETTER of the Society for Spanish and Portuguese Historical Studies is published four times each year and is distributed to members of the Society. The Editor is Morgan R. Broadhead, Department of History, The University of Texas at Austin, Austin, Texas 78712. Announcements of newsworthy nature (personal honours, research in progress, dissertations in progress, notice of meetings and congresses, recent publications, etc.), queries, archival notes, bibliographic essays, and short reviews of recent foreign publications are welcomed and should be directed to the editor at the above address.


Correspondence concerning membership or the purposes and organization of the Society should be directed to the General Secretary, David R. Ringrose, Department of History, Rutgers University, New Brunswick, New Jersey 08903.

Correspondence concerning the program for the Fourth Annual Conference should be directed to Professor Nicolás Sánchez-Albornoz, History Department, New York University, New York, New York 10003.