Thomas F. Glick, Editor

Volume 1, no. 6

October 15, 1971

THE SOCIETY FOR SPANISH AND PORTUGUESE HISTORICAL STUDIES was founded in April 1969, to promote research in the fields of Spanish and Portuguese History. Members of the Executive Committee are Professors Francis A. Dutra (University of California at Santa Barbara), Thomas F. Glick (University of Texas at Austin), Clara E. Lida (Wesleyan University), Edward Malefakis (University of Michigan), Juan Marichal (Harvard University), Nicolás Sánchez-Albornoz (New York University) and Iris M. Zavala (State University of New York at Stony Brook).


The Third Annual Conference of the Society will take place at Rutgers University, the State University of New Jersey, New Brunswick, New Jersey on Saturday and Sunday, April 22 and 23, 1972. The Conference will be co-sponsored by Princeton University. Further details will be announced in the following issues. Professor David Ringrose, Department of History, Rutgers University, is in charge of local arrangements. Paper proposals must be received before November 15 by Professor Clara Lida, Department of History, Wesleyan University, Middletown, Connecticut 06457.

At the Society's meeting after the 1971 annual meeting, suggestions were entertained from the floor concerning a guest speaker for the 1972 meeting. Speakers named as possibilities were: Ramón Carande (Spanish Economic History); J. H. Elliott (Spain, 16th and 17th centuries); Victorino Magalhaes Godinho (Economic History of Portugal; and Henry Kamen (Hapsburg Spain). Further suggestions for guest speaker are welcomed from the membership. Write Professor Iris M. Zavala, Department of Romance Languages, SUNY at Stony Brook, Stony Brook, New York 11790, by October 15.


Robert C. Bogard

Any scholar coming to Madrid to do research in Spanish-Moroccan relations during the nineteenth century -- or research in any field, for that matter -- should first avail himself of some of the guidebooks which have been written on the archives and libraries here. The two most important of these, although old and unhappily out of print, are the Guía de los archivos de Madrid (1952) and Guía de las bibliotecas de Madrid (1953), both published by the Dirección General de Archivos y Bibliotecas. They are available on the open shelves of the reading room of the National Archives as well as in the National Library (where they are located in the section designated "Información Bibliográfica"-- call numbers IB 26116 and IB 18532, respectively). These give a fairly thorough description of the holdings of all private, public and religious collections of the slightest importance, and from them it is not a difficult matter to determine where the type of material one is interested in is likely to be located. Two other useful works in this category are the Guía del Archivo Histórico Nacional (published in 1958 and available at the portería of the National Archives for 90 pesetas), which gives a very complete idea of the holdings; and the Catálogo de Materias of the library of the Dirección General de Marruecos y Colonias (now known as the Dirección General de Promoción de Sahara), published in 1949 and for sale at 40 pesetas, a not unreasonable price in view of the fact that it is 389 pages long and lists all of the books (but not periodicals or other materials) in the library. One should not jump to the conclusion --based on the dates of publication -- that the usefulness of the works in question has become exhausted: in only one instance have I been misled by them, and they can save innumerable worthless trips.

Insofar as the collections themselves are concerned, by far the most important in the field of Spanish-Moroccan history are those of the Sección de Africa of the National Library and of the Dirección General de Promoción de Sahara. The first of these is based upon the private library of Tomás García Figueras, probably the most important of living Spanish africanists, who for the past few years has been in the process of donating his books and papers to the National Library. A special room on the second floor of the library building has been set aside for the


collection and the people who wish to work with it, and it is a pleasant place to work indeed. Its normal hours are from 9:00 a.m. to 2:00 p.m. and from 4:00 p.m. to 8:00 p.m., Monday through Friday, and from 10:30 a.m. to 2 p.m. on Saturday; the somewhat relaxed Spanish attitude in regard to time prevail here as elsewhere, however. The National Library is also transferring its own holdings concerning Africa to this new addition, and thus in it one finds two separate card catalogues--one pertaining to the García Figueras collection and the other to that which has always belonged to the National Library. The two can be distinguished by the fact that all call numbers assigned to the García Figueras material bear the prefix "GF." The librarian in charge of the Sección de Africa told me that she is still receiving large quantities of books and papers, and that the process of cataloging and indexing is fairly continuous. A word of caution: although the National Library holdings are being moved to the Sección de Africa, not all of the relevant material has been transferred yet; therefore items which are not found in the card catalogues of the Sección de Africa may be encountered in the catalogues for the main library. One should always start in the Sección de Africa, however, because the cards are not being withdrawn from the catalogues of the main library as the transfer takes place. Thus if one requests a book at the main desk the call slip may very well be returned--after an hour or so- marked "No está" or "Sección de Africa."

The great strength of the Sección de Africa is, I should think, in its periodicals. It has a superb collection of Spanish serials, and the basic French ones; typically, it is weak on English publications of all kinds. As for books, most Spanish works over ten years old dealing with any aspect of Spanish-Moroccan relations are found in the Sección de Africa. On the other hand, it seems obvious that the quality of the original collection is not being maintained with new purchases. Even the latest work of the donor, La acción africana de España en torno al 98, is not to be had, nor is the monumental four-volume study by Jean-Louis Miege published in the early l96O's, Le Maroc et l'Europe (1830-1894). An interesting feature of the García Figueras material is the great number of scrapbooks, put together over the years, consisting of newspaper clippings, announcements, short articles, and other similar sources of information. The indices to the scrapbooks are found on the open shelves of the reading room and are titled Miscelánea. Also on these shelves are to be found many volumes of pamphlets and articles which García Figueras had bound in hard cover. Material may be xeroxed readily in the "Información Bibliográfica" section downstairs, but the quality is the poorest I have encountered in Madrid and the cost--ten pesetas


the normal-size page--the most expensive.

The Dirección General de Promoción de Sahara has both an important library and an important archive, and since the Instituto de Estudios Africanos is an adjunct, all of its publications are available for consultation--those still available may be purchased at the Librería Científica, Medinaceli, 5, the outlet for all of the various institutos of the Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Científicas. Since virtually everything dealing with Africa published in Spain in recent years has come through the Instituto--including the Archivos del Instituto de Estudios Africanos (published between 1947 and 1967) and, in a more popular vein, the monthly Africa, as well as a series of separately published monographs--this is an important consideration. One does not consult a card catalogue here; instead he is given the Catálogo de Materias mentioned above. Acquisitions since 1949 are not listed, and thus one must ask for works published since that time, as well as for periodicals. Under such a system it is rather difficult to form an idea of the real holdings of the library, but my impression is that it is probably better than the Sección de Africa- depending on the research problem. The very kind, charming, and intelligent lady in charge of the library of the Dirección General de Promoción de Sahara has assured me that the Catálogo lists only the nucleus of the current holdings, but aside from Spanish works and periodicals my belief is that here too relatively little new material is being added.

The archives of the Dirección General de Promoción de Africa, according to the Guía de los archivos de Madrid, "... no tiene caracter de público," and such has certainly been my experience, though I am still trying to gain access. According to the Guía again, the material relating to Morocco is almost entirely concerned with the protectorate period, but here I believe that its information is outdated: the director of the archives and library of the Ministerio de Asuntos Exteriores told me that virtually all of their material relating to Morocco had been transferred to the Dirección General de Promoción de Sahara, and two recent Spanish works (1) confirm this assertion by


mentioning the archives of the Dirección General de Promoción de Sahara as sources of diplomatic correspondence between the minister of state and the Spanish representative in Tangier. Thus some researchers do gain access to these archives (a young Englishman, however, whom I met at the National Library, told me that he had also been denied permission to use them). On the other hand, there are some interesting contradictions: the archivist at Asuntos Exteriores told me that the transfer of material took place "around 1942"; however, the Guía, published in 1952, indicates that diplomatic correspondence between Tangier and Madrid for the years 1861 to 1931 was in Asuntos Exteriores at the date of publication; also, Miege in the first volume of his work (2), mentioned above, states that he was able to examine documents relative to Morocco at Asuntos Exteriores for the period 1861-1907 and this first volume appeared in 1961.

As for the Ministerio de Asuntos Exteriores itself, I have as yet found nothing in their archives of any value concerning Morocco. Correspondence from Spanish representatives in London and Paris does not, in the years I have examined, mention it. The material in these archives may be examined down to the year 1931, incidentally, and there is a substantial library which is not confined to international relations. Here again one must have an idea of what he is looking for since there is no access to the card catalogue.

Another source of Moroccan material is the Archivo Histórico Nacional. Its Sección de Estado contains various papers relative to the Treaty of Marrakech (1767), correspondence with the governors of the presidios, letters from the Emperor of Morocco, and letters from missionaries in Morocco. There is, however, nothing later than 1850 (the earliest document is dated 1720). At right angles to the Archivo Histórico Nacional is the building which houses the Biblioteca General of the Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Científicas. Although it is an excellent general library and contains a number of works on Morocco, I would not have mentioned it in this context except for the fact that it is the only place in Madrid I have been able to find copies of the four volumes of Miege, a work so important that it is virtually impossible to venture into any study


of nineteenth century Morocco without referring to it frequently.

The Hemeroteca Municipal has undoubtedly the best collection of Spanish newspapers available as well as a great number of periodicals; both were important avenues of africanismo expression in the latter part of the nineteenth century, and so of course this is en important source of information.

Two other places I have found useful are the Ateneo de Madrid and the library of the Real Academia de la Historia. The first is simply a good general library, but the fact that it is open from 9:00 a.m. to 12:45 a.m. Monday through Saturday and from 9:00 a.m. to l0:00 p.m. on Sunday makes it not only unique but extremely useful. The latter, like the Ateneo, has several Spanish works on Morocco which can be found elsewhere, but for me it has been chiefly important as a source of contemporary historical journals in languages other than Spanish. This is another of those places where one does not normally use the card catalogue.

As of this writing (March 31) there are two possible repositories of valuable information that I have not investigated because I have not yet received the necessary permission. One is the Archivo del Palacio Nacional (particularly the Secretaría Particular de SS. MM. Isabel II, Alfonso XII, y Alfonso XIII); the other is the Archive of the Museo Lázaro Galdiano, which contains the private papers of Antonio Cánovas del Castillo. Cánovas not only wrote a history of Morocco but also fathered the status quo policy in regard to it. In addition, he was at one time president of the Sociedad Geográfica de Madrid, from which much of the africanist movement grew.

In summary, my overall impression is that there is of course in Madrid a great abundance of Spanish materials relative to Spain's relations with Morocco in the nineteenth century--but examining the best of it is difficult if not impossible. On the other hand, the paucity of foreign works which would, perhaps, allow more balanced judgments is a recurring source of disappointment.

1. Julio Salom Costa, España en la Europa de Bismarck (Madrid: Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Científicas, Escuela de Historia Moderna, 1967), p. 425; and Juan Bta. Vilar, España en Argelia, Túnez, Ifni y Sahara, durante el siglo XIX (Madrid: Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Científicas, Instituto de Estudios Africanos, 1970), p. 137.

2. Sources - Bibliographie, Vol. I: Le Maroc et l'Europe (1830-1894) (Paris: Presses Universitaires de France, 1961), pp. 35-6.

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The Conference, sponsored by The Medieval Institute at Western Michigan University, Kalamazoo, featured a number of papers on Iberian historical subjects: Lawrence McCrank (The University of Virginia), "The Frontier of Spanish Reconquest and the Landed Acquisitions of the Cistercians of Poblet, 1150-1276"; Paul M. Bassett (Nazareth Theological Seminary), "The Use of History in the Writings of Isidore of Seville"; Enrique Gallego Blanco (Adams State College), "The Councils of Toledo and the Visigothic Monarchy"; and Jorge J. E. García (University of Toronto), "On Wine, a Catalan Treatise by Francesc Eiximenis."


A "Workshop on Modern Spain, 1808-1971" was held at the University of Wisconsin in Madison from June 7 to 12, 1971, under the direction of Juan J. Linz of Yale University and Stanley G. Payne of the University of Wisconsin. This was the first in a series of workshops being sponsored by the Council on European Studies to deal with topics and problems in contemporary west European studies. It was attended by 15 professors and 25 graduate students drawn from Spain and from institutions in all parts of the United States. Approximately half of the graduate students came from history and the remainder represented anthropology, sociology, economics and political science. The two senior scholars directly from Spain were Julio Caro Baroja, the distinguished anthropologist and social historian, and Ricardo de la Cierva of the University of Madrid, director of the Study Unit on the Spanish Civil War. Most expenses for the Workshop were paid by the Council and a total of 20 expense grants were awarded to graduate students to enable them to come.

The Workshop was organized to compensate for the lack of any organized institutional base for modern Spanish studies, bringing together for the first time scholars from nearly all the social science disciplines and thus supplementing the coordination of historical work begun by the recently organized Society for Spanish and Portuguese Historical Studies.

The Workshop's activities spanned five full days of working sessions. Participating faculty summarized the most important recent research and trends in their respective fields, pointing out the most fruitful new opportunities for new work and providing information to students concerning archives and data collections. Each of the attending graduate students presented his dis-


sertation research plan to the group and received suggestions and criticisms for improvement and/or revision. There was extensive opportunity for individual consultation and small-group discussion, providing clearer focus for student projects, more effective research designs and clearer organization of their future work, together with more thorough information about sources and opportunities for investigation in Spain.

For information concerning future workshops, write to the current chairman of the Council on European Studies, Professor Leon Lindberg, 1444 Van Hise, University of Wisconsin, Madison 53706.


In November 1968 the Brandeis University Library acquired a nucleus collection of nearly 500 books and pamphlets (and some posters) on the Spanish Civil War. By June 1969 considerable progress was reported in expanding the collection and also the collection of radical and social pamphlets. The growth since then has been substantial. In the short span of two and a half years the acquisitions have jumped from 500 to over 2,500 books and pamphlets dealing with every aspect of the war. In addition to the books and pamphlets, the outstanding feature of the collection is its unusual richness in ephemeral material. Besides the many posters, there are over 1,000 propaganda leaflets. Complementing this is a working collection of contemporary Spanish newspapers, photographs and news bulletins, including El Alcazar, the extremely rare bulletin issued daily in mimeograph form during the siege of this famous fortress.

Placed on deposit with the library for the use of researchers are the papers of the late Jesús González Mazo, former editor of España Libre, organ of the Confederated Spanish Societies of the United States. Also on deposit is the collection of the late Russell Blackwell, a former U. S. volunteer who fought in Spain with the P.O.U.M.

There is at least one other collection in this country with more books and pamphlets. But size is not the sole criterion of excellence. Pending the completion of the new National Union Catalogue, it is not possible to be definitive about the proportion of Brandeis holdings which are unique, but the collection includes many items not recorded elsewhere (i.e., 10% are not listed in Ricardo de la Cierva's standard bibliography. When one adds to


this the large run of ephemeral material which is usually not catalogued, it becomes clear that the Brandeis collection has some unusual aspects for research.

Finally, we are happy to note, the Brandeis Spanish Civil War collection is served by a card catalogue, a labor of love assumed by Victor Berch who has in the process converted himself into an expert on Spanish Civil War literature. It is hoped that in the near future a catalogue can be issued, thereby providing the scholarly community elsewhere with a research tool that will make our collection more widely known and used.

Recently the library was approached for the purchase of at least 8,000 pieces in one lot (less duplicates). This acquisition would unquestionably put Brandeis in the premier class as far as this subject is concerned. The library must now find some individual or group willing to support the purchase of this collection.


John H. Miller of the Department of Romance Languages at Michigan State University has compiled a survey of Catalan Studies in the United States and Canada and which is available from him in mimeograph form. The survey is based on a questionnaire sent to 223 schools, of which 65% replied. The information is summarized according to four categories: (I) schools in which courses devoted to Catalán are regularly offered (15 schools); (II) schools where the teaching of Catalán is being considered for the future (13); (III) schools in which Catalán courses have been offered in the past (4); and (IV) current scholarly activity in Catalán studies.


The Editor will consider for publication in the Newsletter on a trial basis notes or longer analyses of books not in English on topics of interest to the membership. The idea is to use the Newsletter as a forum for dissemination of knowledge of books which might not otherwise come to members' attention. Thus, members wishing to call attention to a significant foreign publication may avail him-or herself-of our pages to so do. The Editor believes that English-language books receive ample coverage elsewhere and has no wish to sponsor internecine warfare among members.


As always, the Newsletter seeks research articles and reports which further our aim of facilitating Iberian social science research.


The following doctoral dissertations are currently in progress under the direction of the professor whose name is indicated after that of the institution. The estimated date of completion is indicated in parentheses.

City University of New York (Harry Bernstein)

University of California, San Diego (Gabriel Jackson) University of Texas at Austin (Thomas F. Glick)